Based on the theories of critical mass and stakeholders, this article analyzes the effect of gender parity in the Local Parliaments and Mayoralties of the Federal States of Mexico over the sub-national human development index (HDI), which is made up of three dimensions: education, health and standard of living. Using a study sample composed by 288 observations during the 2010-2018 period and a balanced data panel, the results show that the participation of women in Local Parliaments has a favorable effect on two sub-indexes of human development: life expectancy and expected years of schooling. Empirical evidence shows that a critical mass of 20%-30% of women participation in mayoralties increases the human development index in its dimensions of standard of living, education and gross national income per capita. These results suggest that gender parity in Local Parliaments and Mayoralties, has a positive effect on the budget allocation and the HDI, in the context of an emerging country. It is necessary to design and implement public policies that strengthen strategies on gender parity and human development performance in Mexico.
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